Volume 3, Number 4
Plenum press - New York and
HOXRD6 3(4) 193-256 (1982)
Other Applications: Pregnancy and
Neonates Baiborodov, B.D.
Some Peculiarities in Application of Hyperbaric
Oxygenation During the Treatment of Acute Respiratory Insufficiency
in Newborn Infants.
In: Abstracts VII Int. Cong. HBO Medicine, Moscow, Sept. 2-6,
HBO was used in 830 newborn infants: in 555 infants with
asphyxia, in 165 infants with syndrome of respiratory disturbances
(SRD) and 110 infants with the aspiratory syndrome (AS). During the
treatment of asphyxia an early use of HBO, 1-5 min after artificial
pulmonary ventilation (APV), as compared with a late use of HBO,
10-30 min after APV, leads to a decrease of cerebral circulatory
disorders by 4 time a, and or mortality rate by 8 times. During the
treatment of SRD, the employment of HBO in the First 1-3 hrs of life
led to recovery of 75% of infants. The delayed use of HBO, 12-48 hrs
after birth is ineffective. HBO applied in the first hour of life
during the treatment of AS prevented the development of aspiratory
pneumonia in 92.7% of cases. HBO should be used during the treatment
of neonatal asphyxia in combination with APV, infusion "alkalizing"
therapy, and during the treatment of SRD and AS it should be
combined with cardial, anti-bacterial, infusion, "alkalizing"
therapy. The duration of sessions should not be less than 1.5-2 hrs
and not more than 3 hrs at 2-3 ATA for 10-15 min and at 1.4-1.5 ATA
for 1.5-2.5 hrs. When these conditions are met acid-base balance and
blood gases normalize. If necessary, such sessions are repeated in
6-9 hors; to delay them for 12-30 hors is not advisable. Thus,
effectiveness of HBO during the treatment of acute hypoxic states in
new-born infants depends on its early, complex and repeated
application under safe resuscitation and therapeutic
Brain: Jet setting drains
Too much long haul travel could shrink your brain.
Flying becomes even more dangerous this week. Even if you
survive the in-flight food and seat-induced deep vein thrombosis,
repeated jet lag without time to recover could shrink bits of your
brain, research shows.
Five years of long-haul travel without rest time shrivels
parts of the cortex and hippocampus, the thinking and learning parts
of the brain, reports Kwangwook Cho of the University of Bristol.
Cho, who last year found that female cabin crew suffer poor
memory and increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol after
repeated long flights2, imaged the brains of 20 air hostesses
working for international airline companies.
The group that had less than five days to recover when they
flew over more than seven time zones showed significant shrinkage
compared with those given a full two weeks to recover. The more
demanding schedule also cut the women's ability in spatial learning
and memory tasks.
"It's tantalizing stuff," says Charalambos Kyriacou, who
studies biological rhythms at the University of Leicester, UK.
According to Kyriacou, jet lag confuses the master body clock in
the brain, the supra-chiasmatic nucleus, which sends out signals
such as boosted cortisol levels to reset the rest of the body. A
withering hippocampus may be the result of disrupted cell division
by these signals, he speculates.
"Your brain resets quickly but your different organs reset
more slowly," Kyriacou says it's this that makes us feel lousy. To
avert air-hostess brain syndrome, Cho recommends allowing plenty of
time to recover after a flight.
- Cho, K. Chronic "jet lag" produces temporal lobe atrophy
and spatial cogntive deficits. Nature Neuroscience 4, 567 568
- Cho, K., Ennaceur, A. Cole, J.C. & Suh, C.H. Chronic
jet lag produces cognitive deficits. Journal of Neuroscience 20,
Glucose and Oxygen give good food for thought By Celia Hall, Medical
BREATHING Oxygen or taking Glucose just
before using the brain can significantly increase ability, according
to new research. The study, which suggests that the brain responds
well to a boost of oxygen or glucose just as muscle does, could have
implications for treating Alzheimer's disease or chronic fatigue
Andrew Scholey, director of the human cognitive neuroscience unit at
North Umbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, said "thought fuel"
did improve mental performance. "Most of us accept that the capacity
of exercise can be enhanced by increasing the delivery of oxygen or
glucose to muscles," he says today in the Psychologist journal.
The researchers set out to discover if the same was true of
the brain. "The brain is extremely energetic. It weighs two per cent
of body weight. Even sitting down it is using 20 or 30 per cent of
body energy. It is an incredibly energetic organ but it has a design
fault - essentially is stores very little glucose," Dr Scholey said
Oxygen improved performance at the highest levels on the
computer game Tetris, showing that breathing it in immediately
before the task increased ability. Dr Scholey says that oxygen could
improve brain function.
another experiment, students were given a drink of 25 or 50g of
glucose and asked to subtract seven from a number repeatedly. Both
levels of glucose increased the response rate by two to three a
minute. On average students achieved 20 to 30 responses in two
minutes without the glucose drink.
Earlier work by Dr Scholey's department, reported last year,
has shown that the food supplements ginseng and ginko biloba in
difficult and easy brain tests - subtracting sevens and subtracting
threes - had a positive effect. Ginseng speeded responses and ginko